Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) Milestones

1927: Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) established at the Navy Gun Factory, Washington, D.C.

192x: Developed free ascent tables for submarine rescue, which formed the basis for early no-stop limits

193x: Conducted extensive experimental dives to determine allowable supersaturation ratios for different tissue compartments for the Haldanean model

193x: Developed the Momsen Lung and the McCann Bell used for submarine escape

1937: Published the U.S. Navy 1937 tables

1939: Published U.S. Navy Helium-Oxygen Decompression Tables (revised in 1942)

1939: Conducted USS Squalus rescue in 240 ft. off the coast of New Hampshire

1941: Treated altitude decompression sickness with hyperbaric oxygen for the first time

1950: Developed the the pneumofathometer (depth gauge)

1950: Evaluated the Aqua Lung Self Contained Swimming Outfit and recommended it be used only to 60 ft. for no-stop diving

1951: Developed the surface decompression on oxygen (SURDO2) protocol

195x: Developed and tested the neoprene suit

1957: Published the U.S. Navy Standard Air with Repetitive Diving Procedures (which replaced Haldane tables)

1958: Introduced the breathing machine for use in unmanned testing

1962: Conducted the first human saturation dives

1964-72: Tested the MK 6 semiclosed-circuit rebreather and used in Sealab

1965: Developed U.S. Navy Treatment Tables 5 and 6 (These hyperbaric oxygen tables became the most widely used treatment for DCS.)

1969: Developed heliox-saturation excursion tables (These tables allowed for upward/downward excursion from saturation and were revised in 1976 and 1989.)

1969: Conducted with Duke University a 1000 fsw/304 msw saturation dive

1971: Conducted a 1000 fsw/304 msw saturation dive with the Admiralty Experimental Diving Unit (AEDU), demonstrating the feasibility of using an electronically controlled closed-circuit system for diving at 1000 ft in cold water

1971-77: Tested the MK 10 Closed-Circuit Breathing Apparatus for 1000-1600 fsw diving

1974-78: Tested and approved the MK 12 Surface-Supplied Diving System (SSDS) helmet to replace the classic MK 5 helmet

1975-79: Tested and approved the LAR V (MK 25) Dräger 100% oxygen rebreather

1975: Relocated to Panama City, Fla., and the Ocean Simulation Facility (OSF), the world's largest hyperbaric facility, and was joined by the Navy School of Diving and Salvage in 1979

1976-79: Conducted a 1400 fsw saturation dive (1976), 1500 few saturation dive (1977), 1800 fsw saturation dive (1979)

1977-83: Tested the MK 1 full-face mask (FFM)

1977: Tested the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) diving computer

1978-80: Tested and approved the MK 11 helmet with semiclosed backpack

1979-86: Tested the Super Lite 17B (MK 21) diving helmet

1979-86: Tested and approved the MK 16 MOD 0 closed-circuit rebreather

1978: Tested the EX 17 closed-circuit rebreather, a MK 16 variant, to 1054 fsw

1978-85: Tested and approved the MK 14 Closed-Circuit Saturation Diving System

1980: Developed and tested the Thalmann algorithm, the basis of most current USN decompression tables and all USN dive computers (also in 1984 and 1986)

1981: Published Test Methods and Performance Goals for Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA)

1983: Tested and approved the MK 15 rebreather

1984: Published the U.S. Navy Exponential-Linear E-L probabilistic algorithm and tables for constant 0.7 atm PO2 nitro closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) applications

1985: Extended the E-L model for constant 0.7 atm PO2 helix closed-circuit rebreathers

1986: Established single depth limits to control risk of central nervous system oxygen toxicity when diving with 100% oxygen

1994: Published New Test Methods and Performance Goals for UBA 1994-2016: Numerous investigations of scuba regulator cold water performance in frigid fresh and salt water

1995 to present: Tested novel active and passive thermal garments, electrically heated and tube suits

1996: Tested and approved the SIVA Viper (VSW) semiclosed-circuit rebreather

1998: Navy Medical Research Institute's (NMRI) biomedical research division merged into NEDU

1998: Tested the helicopter emergency egress breathing systems (HEEDS)

1998-2015: Tested the Mk 16/25/28 tables for rebreather canister duration

2000: Developed tables and procedures for oxygen-accelerated decompression of pressurized disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors

2000: Developed MK 16 MOD 1 N2-O2 decompression tables

2001: Developed the CO2 scrubber gauge for showing remaining rebreather canister duration during a dive

2001: Tested the Cochran Navy Dive Computer, multiple versions currently used

2001-02: Tested the Scout/Patriot high-pressure air system

2001-02: Developed the MK-16 MOD 1 He-02 tables, the first probabilistic ISO-DCS risk decompression tables promulgated for Fleet use

2002: Assisted with saturation dives on the USS Monitor to recover the ship's turret

2002-03: Tested the Kirby Morgan KM 48 full-face mask and pods

2004: Tested O2 masks at altitude in the OSF

2005: Conducted Marine one-hand tourniquet evaluation

2005: Developed oxygen-accelerated decompression tables for Submarine Rescue and Diving Recompression System (SRDRS) operators and tenders

2006: Tested the DIVEX SLS MK IV saturation diving backpack at 1000 fsw

2007: Developed Integrated Air, Air/O2, and Air SURDO2 decompression tables for Revision 6 of the U.S. Navy Diving Manual

2007: Identified a diver's thermal status as risk factor for decompression sickness

2007: Tested and approved the Kirby Morgan KM 37

2007: Completed approximately six years of investigations of pulmonary oxygen toxicity at PO2 = 1.2 atm.

2007: Established diver-focused work of breathing limits for air diving.

2007-11: Completed a deep-stops/shallow-stops comparison study that showed that deep stops increase incidence of DCS

2008: Discovered a new form of whole-body oxygen toxicity that decreases muscular and cardiovascular performance

2008: Joined with Smithsonian Institution to test scuba regulators in Antarctica for ice diving

2010: Tested and approved the MK 28 (Inner Space Megalodon) rebreather

2012: Offered operational guidance for long-duration hyperoxic dives

2012: Certified the modernized Mk16 Mod 1 rebreather to 300 fsw

2012-14: Conducted mechanical and physiological analysis of F-22 Raptor life support system

2012-16: Conducted testing of Polestar Technologies Inc. gaseous CO2 sensor

2014: Made improvements in Miners emergency egress equipment

2015: Tested and approved the Kirby Morgan KM 97

2015: Conducted a trimix/heliox comparison that showed that there is no "helium penalty" for decompression

2015: Mapped regional human heat exchange during cold-water dives

2015: Measured CO2 retention as a result of the combination of UBA-like breathing resistance and CO2 in inspired gas at different work rates

2015: Created a model of risk for pulmonary oxygen toxicity after single and repeated dives with PO2 = 1.3 atm (The OTU model is limited in explaining pulmonary toxicity.)

2015: Revised Integrated Air, Air/O2, and Air SURDO2 decompression tables for Revision 7 of the U.S. Navy Diving Manual

2015: Conducted numerous investigations of regulator cold-water performance in frigid fresh and salt water

2015: Updated Test Methods, Performance Goals and Performance Limits for UBA

2016: Tested cold-water performance of emergency gas supply (EGS) regulators in Kirby Morgan KM 37 helmets